Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Netiquette IQ Blog Of 6/12/2019 Transformational Grammar

Richard Nordquist is a freelance writer and former professor of English and Rhetoric who wrote college-level Grammar and Composition textbooks.
Updated February 07, 2019
Transformational grammar is a theory of grammar that accounts for the constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and phrase structures. Also known as transformational-generative grammar or T-G or TGG.
Following the publication of Noam Chomsky's book Syntactic Structures in 1957, transformational grammar dominated the field of linguistics for the next few decades.
  • "The era of Transformational-Generative Grammar, as it is called, signifies a sharp break with the linguistic tradition of the first half of the [twentieth] century both in Europe and America because, having as its principal objective the formulation of a finite set of basic and transformational rules that explain how the native speaker of a language can generate and comprehend all its possible grammatical sentences, it focuses mostly on syntax and not on phonology or morphology, as structuralism does" (Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 2005).
  • "The new linguistics, which began in 1957 with the publication of Noam Chomsky's Syntactic Structures, deserves the label 'revolutionary.' After 1957, the study of grammar would no longer be limited to what is said and how it is interpreted. In fact, the word grammar itself took on a new meaning. The new linguistics defined grammar as our innate, subconscious ability to generate language, an internal system of rules that constitutes our human language capacity. The goal of the new linguistics was to describe this internal grammar.
    "Unlike the structuralists, whose goal was to examine the sentences we actually speak and to describe their systemic nature, the transformationalists wanted to unlock the secrets of language: to build a model of our internal rules, a model that would produce all of the grammatical—and no ungrammatical—sentences." (M. Kolln and R. Funk, Understanding English Grammar. Allyn and Bacon, 1998)
  • "[F]rom the word go, it has often been clear that Transformational Grammar was the best available theory of language structure, while lacking any clear grasp of what distinctive claims the theory made about human language." (Geoffrey Sampson, Empirical Linguistics. Continuum, 2001)
Surface Structures and Deep Structures
  • "When it comes to syntax, [Noam] Chomsky is famous for proposing that beneath every sentence in the mind of a speaker is an invisible, inaudible deep structure, the interface to the mental lexicon. The deep structure is converted by transformational rules into a surface structure that corresponds more closely to what is pronounced and heard. The rationale is that certain constructions, if they were listed in the mind as surface structures, would have to be multiplied out in thousands of redundant variations that would have to have been learned one by one, whereas if the constructions were listed as deep structures, they would be simple, few in number, and economically learned." (Steven Pinker, Words and Rules. Basic Books, 1999)
Transformational Grammar and the Teaching of Writing
  • "Though it is certainly true, as many writers have pointed out, that sentence-combining exercises existed before the advent of transformational grammar, it should be evident that the transformational concept of embedding gave sentence combining a theoretical foundation upon which to build. By the time Chomsky and his followers moved away from this concept, sentence combining had enough momentum to sustain itself." (Ronald F. Lunsford, "Modern Grammar and Basic Writers." Research in Basic Writing: A Bibliographic Sourcebook, ed. by Michael G. Moran and Martin J. Jacobi. Greenwood Press, 1990)
The Transformation of Transformational Grammar
  • "Chomsky initially justified replacing phrase-structure grammar by arguing that it was awkward, complex, and incapable of providing adequate accounts of language. Transformational grammar offered a simple and elegant way to understand language, and it offered new insights into the underlying psychological mechanisms.
  • "As the grammar matured, however, it lost its simplicity and much of its elegance. In addition, transformational grammar has been plagued by Chomsky's ambivalence and ambiguity regarding meaning. . . . Chomsky continued to tinker with transformational grammar, changing the theories and making it more abstract and in many respects more complex, until all but those with specialized training in linguistics were befuddled. . . .
  • "[T]he tinkering failed to solve most of the problems because Chomsky refused to abandon the idea of deep structure, which is at the heart of T-G grammar but which also underlies nearly all of its problems. Such complaints have fueled the paradigm shift to cognitive grammar." (James D. Williams, The Teacher's Grammar Book. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999)
  • "In the years since transformational grammar was formulated, it has gone through a number of changes. In the most recent version, Chomsky (1995) has eliminated many of the transformational rules in previous versions of the grammar and replaced them with broader rules, such as a rule that moves one constituent from one location to another. It was just this kind of rule on which the trace studies were based. Although newer versions of the theory differ in several respects from the original, at a deeper level they share the idea that syntactic structure is at the heart of our linguistic knowledge. However, this view has been controversial within linguistics." (David W. Carroll, Psychology of Language, 5th ed. Thomson Wadsworth, 2008)

Netquette IQ Blog Of 6/5/2019 - virtual private cloud (VPC

virtual private cloud (VPC)
A virtual private cloud (VPC) is the logical division of a service provider's public cloud multi-tenant architecture to support private cloud computing. This model enables an enterprise to achieve the benefits of private cloud -- such as more granular control over virtual networks and an isolated environment for sensitive workloads -- while still taking advantage of public cloud resources.
The terms private cloud and virtual private cloud are sometimes used incorrectly as synonyms. There is a distinct difference -- in a traditional, on-premises private cloud model, an enterprise's internal IT department acts as a service provider and the individual business units act as tenants. With a VPC, a public cloud provider acts as the service provider and the cloud's subscribers are the tenants.
How a virtual private cloud works
In a virtual private cloud model, the public infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) provider is responsible for ensuring that each private cloud customer's data remains isolated from every other customer's data both in transit and inside the cloud provider's network. This can be accomplished through the use of security policies requiring some -- or all -- of the following elements: encryption, tunneling, private IP addressing or allocating a unique virtual local area network (VLAN) to each customer.
A virtual private cloud user can define and directly manage network components, including IP addresses, subnets, network gateways and access control policies.
Benefits and challenges of virtual private clouds
As mentioned above, one of the biggest benefits of VPCs is that they enable an enterprise to tap into some of the benefits of private clouds, such as more granular network control, while still using off-premises, public cloud resources in a highly scalable, pay-as-you-go model.
Another benefit of VPCs is enabling a hybrid cloud deployment. An enterprise can use a VPC as an extension of its own data center without dealing with the complexities of building an on-premises private cloud.
Despite the benefits of VPCs, they can also introduce some challenges. For example, an enterprise might face some complexity when configuring, managing and monitoring its virtual private network (VPN).
In addition, while VPCs offer an isolated environment within a public cloud in which workloads can run, they are still hosted outside an enterprise's own data center. This means that businesses in highly regulated industries with strict compliance requirements might face limitations on which kinds of applications and data they can place in a VPC.
Before it commits to a VPC, an enterprise should also verify that all of the resources and services it wants to use from its chosen public cloud provider are available via that provider's VPC.
Virtual private cloud providers
Most leading public IaaS providers, including Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure and Google, offer VPC and virtual network services.

06/03/2019 07:07 AM EDT

Original release date: June 03, 2019
The US-CERT Cyber Security Bulletin provides a summary of new vulnerabilities that have been recorded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD) in the past week. The NVD is sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) / United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT). For modified or updated entries, please visit the NVD, which contains historical vulnerability information.
The vulnerabilities are based on the CVE vulnerability naming standard and are organized according to severity, determined by the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) standard. The division of high, medium, and low severities correspond to the following scores:
·        High - Vulnerabilities will be labeled High severity if they have a CVSS base score of 7.0 - 10.0
·        Medium - Vulnerabilities will be labeled Medium severity if they have a CVSS base score of 4.0 - 6.9
·        Low - Vulnerabilities will be labeled Low severity if they have a CVSS base score of 0.0 - 3.9
Entries may include additional information provided by organizations and efforts sponsored by US-CERT. This information may include identifying information, values, definitions, and related links. Patch information is provided when available. Please note that some of the information in the bulletins is compiled from external, open source reports and is not a direct result of US-CERT analysis.
The NCCIC Weekly Vulnerability Summary Bulletin is created using information from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD). In some cases, the vulnerabilities in the bulletin may not yet have assigned CVSS scores. Please visit NVD for updated vulnerability entries, which include CVSS scores once they are available.

May is Awareness for the following:


*      American Stroke Awareness Month
*      Arthritis Awareness Month
*      Better Hearing and Speech Month
*      Clean Air Month
*      Cystic Fibrosis Awareness Month
*      Food Allergy Action Month
*      Global Employee Health and Fitness Month
*      Healthy Vision Month
*      Hepatitis Awareness Month
*      International Mediterranean Diet Month
*      Lupus Awareness Month
*      Melanoma/Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month
*      Mental Health Month
*      National Asthma and Allergy Awareness Month
*      National Celiac Disease Awareness Month
*      National High Blood Pressure Education Month
*      National Osteoporosis Awareness and Prevention Month
*      National Physical Fitness and Sports Month
*      National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Month
*      Ultraviolet Awareness Month
*      National Physical Education and Sport Week (May 1–7)
*      World Hand Hygiene Day (May 5)
*      North American Occupational Safety and Health Week (May 5–11)
*      National Stuttering Awareness Week (May 5–11)
*      Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Awareness Day (May 11)
*      National Women’s Health Week (May 12–18)
*      National Alcohol- and Other Drug-Related Birth Defects Awareness Week (May 12–18)
*      HIV Vaccine Awareness Day (May 18)
*      National Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (May 19)
*      World Autoimmune Arthritis Day (May 20)
*      Don’t Fry Day (May 24)
*      National Senior Health Fitness Day (May 29)
*      Children’s Mental Health Awareness Week (TBA)
*      Food Allergy Awareness Week (TBA)
*      National Hurricane Preparedness Week (TBA)
*      National Neuropathy Awareness Week (TBA)
*      World Preeclampsia Day (TBA)