Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Netiquette IQ Security Bulletin - Apple Releases Multiple Security Updates 01/22/2019









Buy the books at

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki
====================================================
















National Cyber Awareness System:
 Apple Releases Multiple Security Updates
01/22/2019 03:26 PM EST

Original release date: January 22, 2019
Apple has released security updates to address vulnerabilities in multiple products. A remote attacker could exploit some of these vulnerabilities to take control of an affected system.
The National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC), part of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), encourages users and administrators to review the Apple Security Updates page and apply the necessary updates.
We can be contacted at:
sales@tabularosa.net  or 609 818 1802.
 ===============================================================
In addition to this blog, Netiquette IQ has a website with great assets which are being added to on a regular basis. I have authored the premiere book on Netiquette, “Netiquette IQ - A Comprehensive Guide to Improve, Enhance and Add Power to Your Email". My new book, “You’re Hired! Super Charge Your Email Skills in 60 Minutes. . . And Get That Job!” has just been published and will be followed by a trilogy of books on Netiquette for young people. You can view my profile, reviews of the book and content excerpts at:

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki

Anyone who would like to review the book and have it posted on my blog or website, please contact me paul@netiquetteiq.com.

In addition to this blog, I maintain a radio show on BlogtalkRadio  and an online newsletter via paper.li.I have established Netiquette discussion groups with Linkedin and  Yahoo I am also a member of the International Business Etiquette and Protocol Group and Minding Manners among others. I regularly consult for the Gerson Lehrman Group, a worldwide network of subject matter experts and I have been contributing to the blogs Everything Email and emailmonday . My work has appeared in numerous publications and I have presented to groups such as The Breakfast Club of NJ and  PSG of Mercer County, NJ.


Additionally, I am the president of Tabula Rosa Systems, a “best of breed” reseller of products for communications, email, network management software, security products and professional services.  Also, I am the president of Netiquette IQ. We are currently developing an email IQ rating system, Netiquette IQ, which promotes the fundamentals outlined in my book.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Netiquette IQ Blog Of 1/21/19 - Generative Grammar Do you Know What It Is?






Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.
Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.
Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.

-MLK





Buy the books at

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki
====================================================
















Richard Nordquist is a freelance writer and former professor of English and Rhetoric who wrote college-level Grammar and Composition textbooks.
Updated January 15, 2019 

In linguistics, generative grammar is grammar (or set of rules) that indicates the structure and interpretation of sentences which native speakers of a language accept as belonging to the language.
Adopting the term generative from mathematics, linguist Noam Chomsky introduced the concept of generative grammar in the 1950s. This theory is also known as transformational grammar, a term still used today.

Key Takeaways: Generative Grammar

• Generative grammar is a theory of grammar, first developed by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s, that is based on the idea that all humans have an innate language capacity.
• Linguists who study generative grammar are not interested in prescriptive rules; rather, they are interested in uncovering the foundational principals that guide all language production.
• Generative grammar accepts as a basic premise that native speakers of a language will find certain sentences grammatical or ungrammatical, and that these judgments give insight into the rules governing the use of that language.

Definition

Grammar refers to the set of rules that structure a language, including syntax (the arrangement of words to form phrases and sentences) and morphology (the study of words and how they are formed). Generative grammar is a theory of grammar that holds that human language is shaped by a set of basic principles that are part of the human brain (and even present in the brains of small children). This "universal grammar," according to linguists like Chomsky, comes from our innate language faculty.
In "Linguists for Non-Linguists," Frank Parker and Kathryn Riley argue that generative grammar is a kind of "unconscious knowledge" that allows a person, no matter what language they speak, to form correct sentences:
"Simply put, a generative grammar is a theory of competence: a model of the psychological system of unconscious knowledge that underlies a speaker's ability to produce and interpret utterances in a language...A good way of trying to understand [Noam] Chomsky's point is to think of a generative grammar as essentially a definition of competence: a set of criteria that linguistic structures must meet to be judged acceptable."
Generative grammar is distinct from other grammars such as prescriptive grammar, which attempts to establish standardized language rules that certain usages "right" or "wrong," and descriptive grammar, which attempts to describe language as it is actually used (including the study of pidgins and dialects). Instead, generative grammar attempts to get at something deeper—the foundational principles that make language possible across all of humanity.
For example, a prescriptive grammarian may study how parts of speech are ordered in English sentences, with the goal of laying out rules (nouns precede verbs in simple sentences, for example). A linguist studying generative grammar, however, is more likely to be interested in issues such as how nouns are distinguished from verbs across multiple languages.
We can be contacted at:
sales@tabularosa.net  or 609 818 1802.
 ===============================================================
In addition to this blog, Netiquette IQ has a website with great assets which are being added to on a regular basis. I have authored the premiere book on Netiquette, “Netiquette IQ - A Comprehensive Guide to Improve, Enhance and Add Power to Your Email". My new book, “You’re Hired! Super Charge Your Email Skills in 60 Minutes. . . And Get That Job!” has just been published and will be followed by a trilogy of books on Netiquette for young people. You can view my profile, reviews of the book and content excerpts at:

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki

Anyone who would like to review the book and have it posted on my blog or website, please contact me paul@netiquetteiq.com.

In addition to this blog, I maintain a radio show on BlogtalkRadio  and an online newsletter via paper.li.I have established Netiquette discussion groups with Linkedin and  Yahoo I am also a member of the International Business Etiquette and Protocol Group and Minding Manners among others. I regularly consult for the Gerson Lehrman Group, a worldwide network of subject matter experts and I have been contributing to the blogs Everything Email and emailmonday . My work has appeared in numerous publications and I have presented to groups such as The Breakfast Club of NJ and  PSG of Mercer County, NJ.


Additionally, I am the president of Tabula Rosa Systems, a “best of breed” reseller of products for communications, email, network management software, security products and professional services.  Also, I am the president of Netiquette IQ. We are currently developing an email IQ rating system, Netiquette IQ, which promotes the fundamentals outlined in my book.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Let's All Give Thanks For Martin Luther King




Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.
Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.
Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.

-MLK





Buy the books at

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki
====================================================
















 
Richard Nordquist is a freelance writer and former professor of English and Rhetoric who wrote college-level Grammar and Composition textbooks.
Updated July 22, 2018 

In English grammar, the past participle refers to an action that was started and completed entirely in the past. It is the third principal part of a verb, created by adding -ed, -d, or -t to the base form of a regular verb. The past participle is generally used with an auxiliary (or helping) verb—has, have, or had—to express the perfect aspect, a verb construction that describes events occurring in the past that are linked to a later time, usually the present.
In addition to the perfect aspect (or perfect tense), the past participle can be used in a passive voice or as an adjective.

Past Participles of Regular Verbs
To understand past participles, you first need to know how to make a verb past tense, says Study.com. To do so, simply add ed, d, or t, as in these examples that show the verb on the left and the simple past tense on the right:
  • Help > helped
  • Weep > wept
  • Work > worked
Turning these verbs into past participles is also simple: Make the verb past tense and precede it with an auxiliary verb, as in these examples that list the simple past on the left and the past participle on the right:
  • Helped > have helped
  • Visited > have visited
  • Worked > have worked
Though they may seem similar, there is a difference between regular past tense and past participle. The regular past has only one part while the past participle always has two or more parts, and as noted, generally requires an auxiliary verb, says Write.com.

An example of a sentence with a regular verb (using one of the above sentences) would be: "I helped my friend." You simply helped your friend at some time in the past, but you might continue to help her at some point in the future.

The same sentence with a past participle verb would be: "I have helped my friend." You began helping your friend in the past and completed the action of helping her in the past.
Past Participle of Irregular Verbs
The past participle forms of irregular verbs have various endings, including -d (said), -t (slept), and -n (broken). Irregular verbs are trickier to form in the simple past than regular verbs, says Study.com, which gives these examples:
  • Run > ran
  • Sing > sang
  • Go > went
To form the past participle of these irregular verbs, again precede them with an auxiliary verb:
  • Ran > has run, have run
  • Sing > has sung, have sung
  • Went > has gone, have gone
Common Irregular Past Participles
Viewing some of the most common irregular verbs, together with the simple past as well as their past participle forms, can be helpful in understanding how they are formed.
Verb
Simple Past
Past Participle
fly
flew
have flown
rise
rose
had risen
shrink
shrank
had shrunk
feel
felt
had felt
bite
bit
has bitten
catch
caught
have caught
draw
drew
have drawn
drive
drove
have driven
eat
ate
have eaten
fall
fell
have fallen
Additionally, the verb wear is a classic example of an irregular verb that can be complicated to use as a past participle. You might wear underwear today if you are expressing action in the present. You wore underwear yesterday if you are expressing the simple past. To use the same irregular verb as a past participle, however, you might say, "I have worn my Superman underwear." This implies that you donned your Superman 
underwear in the past but you are no longer doing so.

Meanings and Forms of Past Participles

The past participle can indicate past, present, and future meanings, according to "Essentials of English: A Practical Handbook Covering All the Rules of English Grammar and Writing Style," which notes that the past participle has both perfect and progressive forms, as in:
  1. Thus deceived, he will be outraged. [Both actions are in the future.]
  2. Baffled by your attitude, I cannot help you. [Both actions are in the present.]
  3. Baffled by your attitude, I could not help you. [Both actions in the past.]
In the first sentence above, the participle acts like an appositive adjective, renaming the subject thief. The two actions occur completely in the future: The thief will be outraged and he (will be) deceived. Note how the past participle includes an implied form of a "to be" verb: will be.

In the second sentence, baffled is still a past participle but the action will have been started and completed entirely in the present. The past participle includes an implied auxiliary verb—having been—so the full sentence would read: "Having been baffled by your attitude, I cannot help you." The action of being baffled starts and is completed entirely in the present, as is the (non)action of not helping. 

In the same way, the third sentence starts with a past participle describing an action that started and was completed entirely in the past. The past participle also serves as an appositive adjective, describing the pronoun (and subject of the sentence). The full sentence would read: "Having been baffled by your attitude, I could not help you." The subjunctive mood in the second half of the sentence describes an action—could not help—that happened (or in this case did not happen) entirely in the past.
We can be contacted at:
sales@tabularosa.net  or 609 818 1802.
 ===============================================================
In addition to this blog, Netiquette IQ has a website with great assets which are being added to on a regular basis. I have authored the premiere book on Netiquette, “Netiquette IQ - A Comprehensive Guide to Improve, Enhance and Add Power to Your Email". My new book, “You’re Hired! Super Charge Your Email Skills in 60 Minutes. . . And Get That Job!” has just been published and will be followed by a trilogy of books on Netiquette for young people. You can view my profile, reviews of the book and content excerpts at:

 www.amazon.com/author/paulbabicki

Anyone who would like to review the book and have it posted on my blog or website, please contact me paul@netiquetteiq.com.

In addition to this blog, I maintain a radio show on BlogtalkRadio  and an online newsletter via paper.li.I have established Netiquette discussion groups with Linkedin and  Yahoo I am also a member of the International Business Etiquette and Protocol Group and Minding Manners among others. I regularly consult for the Gerson Lehrman Group, a worldwide network of subject matter experts and I have been contributing to the blogs Everything Email and emailmonday . My work has appeared in numerous publications and I have presented to groups such as The Breakfast Club of NJ and  PSG of Mercer County, NJ.


Additionally, I am the president of Tabula Rosa Systems, a “best of breed” reseller of products for communications, email, network management software, security products and professional services.  Also, I am the president of Netiquette IQ. We are currently developing an email IQ rating system, Netiquette IQ, which promotes the fundamentals outlined in my book.