Thursday, June 29, 2017

Netiquette IQ Blog of 6/29/17 - The Top 20 Figures of Speech



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From thoughtco.com
Updated May 02, 2017 

A figure of speech is a rhetorical device that achieves a special effect by using words in distinctive ways. Though there are hundreds of figures of speech, here we'll focus on just 20 of the most common figures.

You will probably remember many of these terms from your English classes. Figurative language is often associated with literature—and with poetry in particular. But the fact is, whether we're conscious of it or not, we use figures of speech every day in our own writing and conversations.

For example, common expressions such as "falling in love," "racking our brains," "hitting a sales target," and "climbing the ladder of success" are all metaphors—the most pervasive figure of all. Likewise, we rely on similes when making explicit comparisons ("light as a feather") and hyperbole to emphasize a point ("I'm starving!").
Using original figures of speech in our writing is a way to convey meanings in fresh, unexpected ways. Figures can help our readers understand and stay interested in what we have to say. For advice on creating figures of speech, see Using Similes and Metaphors to Enrich Our Writing.

The Top 20 Figures of Speech
 
  1. Alliteration
    The repetition of an initial consonant sound.
     
  2. Anaphora
    The repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses. (Contrast with epiphora and epistrophe.)
     
  3. Antithesis
    The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.
     
  1. Apostrophe
    Breaking off discourse to address some absent person or thing, some abstract quality, an inanimate object, or a nonexistent character.
     
  2. Assonance
    Identity or similarity in sound between internal vowels in neighboring words.
     
  3. Chiasmus
    A verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed.
     
  1. Euphemism
    The substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit.
     
  2. Hyperbole
    An extravagant statement; the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect.
     
  3. Irony
    The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. Also, a statement or situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance or presentation of the idea.
     
  4. Litotes
    A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite.
     
  5. Metaphor
    An implied comparison between two unlike things that actually have something important in common.
     
  6. Metonymy
    A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it's closely associated; also, the rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to things around it.
     
  7. Onomatopoeia
    The use of words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to.
     
  8. Oxymoron
    A figure of speech in which incongruous or contradictory terms appear side by side.
     
  9. Paradox
    A statement that appears to contradict itself.
     
  10. Personification
    A figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstraction is endowed with human qualities or abilities.
  1. Pun
    A play on words, sometimes on different senses of the same word and sometimes on the similar sense or sound of different words.
     
  2. Simile
    A stated comparison (usually formed with "like" or "as") between two fundamentally dissimilar things that have certain qualities in common.
     
  3. Synecdoche
    A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole (for example, ABCs for alphabet) or the whole for a part ("England won the World Cup in 1966").
     
Understatement
A figure of speech in which a writer or speaker deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is.

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In addition to this blog, Netiquette IQ has a website with great assets which are being added to on a regular basis. I have authored the premiere book on Netiquette, “Netiquette IQ - A Comprehensive Guide to Improve, Enhance and Add Power to Your Email". My new book, “You’re Hired! Super Charge Your Email Skills in 60 Minutes. . . And Get That Job!” has just been published and will be followed by a trilogy of books on Netiquette for young people. You can view my profile, reviews of the book and content excerpts at:

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